Tiantái Region. See Google Maps.
Tiantái Region. See Google Maps.
Tiantái Area Map. See Trip Advisor. The sites we visited are highlighted.
Tiantái Area Map. See Trip Advisor. The sites we visited are highlighted.
Tiantái Topography. See Peakery. The sites we visited are highlighted, as is our hotel.
Tiantái Topography. See Peakery. The sites we visited are highlighted, as is our hotel.
Woodenfish Project, Founder, Organizer & Linkperson: Venerable Yifa
Coordinator: Guttorm Norberg Gundersen
Main Speaker: Professor Daniel B. Stevenson, University of Kansas
Woodenfish Project, Founder, Organizer & Linkperson: Venerable Yifa
Coordinator: Guttorm Norberg Gundersen
Main Speaker: Professor Daniel B. Stevenson, University of Kansas
Monks, Abbot Xìng Xián  性賢, Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺Abbot Yǔn Guan 允觀, Guóqing Temple 国清寺Senior Monk Wù Míng 悟明, Gāo Míng Temple 高明講寺Vice Abbot & Dean Guān Chū 覌初, Wànnián 萬年禪寺. Photos by Guttorm. Montage by Mark.
Monks, Abbot Xìng Xián 性賢, Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺
Abbot Yǔn Guan 允觀, Guóqing Temple 国清寺
Senior Monk Wù Míng 悟明, Gāo Míng Temple 高明講寺
Vice Abbot & Dean Guān Chū 覌初, Wànnián 萬年禪寺.
Photos by Guttorm. Montage by Mark.
Tiantái group at Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. August 2014. Photo from Guttorm. Tiantái group on excursion near the Zhìzhě Pagoda (Zhìzhě Ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). Photo by Guttorm. Tiantái group at Gāo míng jiǎng sì Temple 高明講寺. Senior monk in second-row center. Photo from Guttorm. Tiantái group at Huá Dǐng Jiǎng Sì Temple 華頂講寺. Abbot in front-row center. Photo from Guttorm.
Tiantái group. Morning prayers, Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Photo by Guttorm. Began at 4 AM andended (about 1.5 hours later) when the congregation circumnabulated the main hall chanting adedication to Medicine  Buddha (Skt = Bhaiṣajyaguru, C = Yàoshī 薬師, J = Yakushi, K = Yeorae 약사).
Tiantái group. Morning prayers, Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Photo by Guttorm. Began at 4 AM and
ended (about 1.5 hours later) when the congregation circumnabulated the main hall chanting a
dedication to Medicine Buddha (Skt = Bhaiṣajyaguru, C = Yàoshī 薬師, J = Yakushi, K = Yeorae 약사).
Tiantái group at Fólǒng 佛隴 peak, where Tiantai patriarch Zhìyǐ 智顗 (538–597), aka Zhìzhě 智者, taught his acolytes. Located near the Zhìzhěi Pagoda (Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). Photo from Guttorm.
Tiantái group at Fólǒng 佛隴 peak, where Tiantai patriarch Zhìyǐ 智顗 (538–597), aka Zhìzhě 智者,
taught his acolytes. Located near the Zhìzhěi Pagoda (Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). Photo from Guttorm.
Tiantái group with abbot of Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Abbot in front-row center. Photo from Guttorm.
Marshal HA 哈将, mouth open, door god at Guóqing
Temple. HA is known as THE BLOWER, for he blew
clouds of poisonous gas out of his mouth whiledefending the last emperor of the Shang dynasty.
Marshal HA 哈将, mouth open, door god at Guóqing
Temple. HA is known as THE BLOWER, for he blew
clouds of poisonous gas out of his mouth while
defending the last emperor of the Shang dynasty.
Marshal HENG 哼将, mouth closed, door god at Guóqing
Temple. HENG is known as THE SNORTER, for he blew
destructive light rays from his nose while defending the
last emperor of the Shang dynasty.
Marshal HENG 哼将, mouth closed, door god at Guóqing
Temple. HENG is known as THE SNORTER, for he blew
destructive light rays from his nose while defending the
last emperor of the Shang dynasty.
Marshal HA, The Blower, mouth open. Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Closeup. Marshal HENG, The Snorter, mouth closed. Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Closeup.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.WEST. Guăng Mù Tiānwáng 廣目天王 holds serpent. Skt = Virūpâkṣa, J = Kōmokuten.
NORTH. Duōwén Tiānwáng 多聞天王 holds umbrella. Skt = Vaiśravaṇa, J = Tamonten.
Vaiśravaṇa is also a form of Kuvera, the god of wealth in Tibet & Nepal.
Worshipped independently in Japan as the god Bishamonten 毘沙門天.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
WEST. Guăng Mù Tiānwáng 廣目天王 holds serpent. Skt = Virūpâkṣa, J = Kōmokuten.
NORTH. Duōwén Tiānwáng 多聞天王 holds umbrella. Skt = Vaiśravaṇa, J = Tamonten.
Vaiśravaṇa is also a form of Kuvera, the god of wealth in Tibet & Nepal.
Worshipped independently in Japan as the god Bishamonten 毘沙門天.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.EAST. Chí Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王 holds musical instrument. Skt = Dhṛtarāṣṭra. J = Jikokuten.
SOUTH. Zēngcháng Tiānwáng 增長天王 holds a sword. Skt = Virūḍhaka. J = Zōchōten.
Dhṛtarāṣṭra is the leader of the gandharvas (celestial musicians). Depicted holding pipa/lute.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
EAST. Chí Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王 holds musical instrument. Skt = Dhṛtarāṣṭra. J = Jikokuten.
SOUTH. Zēngcháng Tiānwáng 增長天王 holds a sword. Skt = Virūḍhaka. J = Zōchōten.
Dhṛtarāṣṭra is the leader of the gandharvas (celestial musicians). Depicted holding pipa/lute.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Gāomíng Jiǎng Temple 高明講寺.
WEST = Guăng Mù Tiānwáng 廣目天王 holding serpent.
NORTH = Duōwén Tiānwáng 多聞天王 holding umbrella.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Gāomíng Jiǎng Temple 高明講寺.
WEST = Guăng Mù Tiānwáng 廣目天王 holding serpent.
NORTH = Duōwén Tiānwáng 多聞天王 holding umbrella.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Gāomíng Jiǎng Temple 高明講寺.
EAST. Chí Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王 holding musical instrument (pipa / lute).
SOUTH. Zēngcháng Tiānwáng 增長天王 holding sword.
Two of Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Gāomíng Jiǎng Temple 高明講寺.
EAST. Chí Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王 holding musical instrument (pipa / lute).
SOUTH. Zēngcháng Tiānwáng 增長天王 holding sword.
Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺. 
WEST = Guăng Mù Tiānwáng 廣目天王 holding serpent. NORTH = Duōwén Tiānwáng 多聞天王 holding umbrella.
EAST = Chí Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王 holding musical instrument. SOUTH = Zēngcháng Tiānwáng 增長天王 holding sword.
Four Heavenly Kings (Sì Tiān Wáng 四天王) at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
WEST = Guăng Mù Tiānwáng 廣目天王 holding serpent. NORTH = Duōwén Tiānwáng 多聞天王 holding umbrella.
EAST = Chí Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王 holding musical instrument. SOUTH = Zēngcháng Tiānwáng 增長天王 holding sword.
Luóhàn 羅漢 (Skt = Arhat, Arhan, J = Rakan, K = Nahan 나한).
Eighteen Luóhàn 十八羅漢 at Guóqing Temple. Two other popular groupings areSixteen Luóhàn 十六羅漢 and 500 Luóhàn 五百羅漢 (also shown above).
Luóhàn 羅漢 (Skt = Arhat, Arhan, J = Rakan, K = Nahan 나한).
Eighteen Luóhàn 十八羅漢 at Guóqing Temple. Two other popular groupings are
Sixteen Luóhàn 十六羅漢 and 500 Luóhàn 五百羅漢 (also shown above).
Luóhàn 羅漢. Some of the Five Hundred Luóhàn 五百羅漢 at Guóqing Temple. Photos by Guttorm, montage by Mark.
Luóhàn 羅漢. One of Five Hundred Luóhàn at Guóqing Temple.
This one represents the theme
that Buddha is Within Each of Us.
Luóhàn 羅漢. One of Five Hundred Luóhàn at Guóqing Temple.
This one represents the theme that Buddha is Within Each of Us.
MAKARA. C = Dàyú 大魚/Mójiéluó 摩竭羅; J = Daigyo/Makera/Makatsu; K = Daeeo 대어/Magal 마갈.MAKARA at Wànnián Chánsì Temple 萬年禪寺. MAKARA is Sanskrit for sea monster. Makara are used
as protective & decorative acroterions. Typically placed at both ends of the main roof ridge, with the male
on the left and the female on the right. The creatures are attributed with the power to control rain and thus
function as talismans to prevent fire. The Chinese character in photo reads Zhuǎn 轉
MAKARA. C = Dàyú 大魚/Mójiéluó 摩竭羅; J = Daigyo/Makera/Makatsu; K = Daeeo 대어/Magal 마갈.
MAKARA at Wànnián Chánsì Temple 萬年禪寺. MAKARA is Sanskrit for sea monster. Makara are used
as protective & decorative acroterions. Typically placed at both ends of the main roof ridge, with the male
on the left and the female on the right. The creatures are attributed with the power to control rain and thus
function as talismans to prevent fire. The Chinese character in photo reads Zhuǎn 轉 "to transform."
MAKARA. C = Dàyú 大魚/Mójiéluó 摩竭羅; J = Daigyo/Makera; K = Daeeo 대어/Magal 마갈.MAKARA at Wànnián Chánsì Temple 萬年禪寺. This sea monster is thought to provide
protection against fire (it is attributed with the power to control rain). Here the curvature
of the rooftop brings to mind a dragon's tail. The dragon is the lord of tempests and chief
controller of rain. The dragon is also a common motif on temple rooftops.
MAKARA. C = Dàyú 大魚/Mójiéluó 摩竭羅; J = Daigyo/Makera; K = Daeeo 대어/Magal 마갈.
MAKARA at Wànnián Chánsì Temple 萬年禪寺. This sea monster is thought to provide
protection against fire (it is attributed with the power to control rain). Here the curvature
of the rooftop brings to mind a dragon's tail. The dragon is the lord of tempests and chief
controller of rain. The dragon is also a common motif on temple rooftops.
MAKARA & DRAGONS at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. At the center is the Buddha Sun (C = FÓRÌ 佛日), which drives away the darkness of ignorance. 
The Buddha-Sun disc was found on the rooftops of most temples we visited.
MAKARA & DRAGONS at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. At the center is the Buddha Sun (C = FÓRÌ 佛日), which drives away the darkness of ignorance.
The Buddha-Sun disc was found on the rooftops of most temples we visited.
MAKARA at Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. Here the Makara are depicted as cute dragon-like creatures. MAKARA roof tile at Zhìzhě Pagoda (Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔).
MAKARA at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. The small figurine holding a musical instrument must be Chí
Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王, the Heavenly King who guards the kingdom and the eastern compass
direction. Skt = Dhṛtarāṣṭra. J = Jikokuten. See
MAKARA at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. The small figurine holding a musical instrument must be Chí
Guó Tiānwáng 持國天王, the Heavenly King who guards the kingdom and the eastern compass
direction. Skt = Dhṛtarāṣṭra. J = Jikokuten. See "Four Heavenly Kings" for details.
EAVES BEASTS at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. Makara are often combined with so-called 
EAVES BEASTS (C = 簷獸 Yán Shòu). The latter is a unique Chinese architectural tradition of

adorning roof eaves with beasts, usually odd in number and historically only allowed on imperial
buildings. The tradition is still widely practiced by temples in both China & Korea, but not in Japan. They serve as roof talismans.
EAVES BEASTS at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. Makara are often combined with so-called
EAVES BEASTS (C = 簷獸 Yán Shòu). The latter is a unique Chinese architectural tradition of
adorning roof eaves with beasts, usually odd in number and historically only allowed on imperial
buildings. The tradition is still widely practiced by temples in both China & Korea, but not in Japan. They serve as roof talismans.
EAVES BEASTS (C = 簷獸 Yán Shòu), Gāomíng Temple 高明講寺. A dragon (not Makara) faces five beastly roof charms.  EAVES BEASTS (C = 簷獸 Yán Shòu) at Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. The dragon plus five other beastly roof charms.
EAVES BEASTS (C = 簷獸 Yán Shòu). Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
The dragon and five other beastly charms.
EAVES BEASTS (C = 簷獸 Yán Shòu). Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
The dragon and five other beastly charms.
  Tiantái Patriarch Zhìyǐ 智顗 (538–597) at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. Zhìyǐ also known as Zhìzhě 智者. Tiantái Patriarch Zhìyǐ 智顗 (538–597), aka Zhìzhě 智者, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Tiantái Patriarch Zhìyǐ 智顗 (538–597), also commonly known as Zhìzhě 智者, Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. Tiantái Patriarch Zhìyǐ 智顗 (538–597), aka Zhìzhě 智者, at the Zhìzhě Pagoda (Zhìzhě Ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔).
Wéituótiān 韋馱天 at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. Icons of this warrior god are often
placed in the Gate Hall (Entrance Gate) and facing into the monestary compound. In
some traditions, this deva is also installed in the dining hall. His main function is to
protect practioners. Skt = Skandha, J = Idaten, K = Witacheon 위타천.
Wéituótiān 韋馱天 at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. Icons of this warrior god are often
placed in the Gate Hall (Entrance Gate) and facing into the monestary compound. In
some traditions, this deva is also installed in the dining hall. His main function is to
protect practioners. Skt = Skandha, J = Idaten, K = Witacheon 위타천.
Wéituótiān 韋馱天, temple guardian,  protecting the monestary at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
Usually placed in the Heavenly Kings Hall (the entrance gate), facing into the monestary, thus
typically facing north. Also commonly placed in back-to-back structures with Bùdài 布袋 
(Skt. = Maitreya). Bùdài however faces out the entrance (south) to protect those who enter the
temple. Notice how Wéituótiān holds his vajra-mallet. When the weapon points straight down to
the ground, it means the temple does not provide accommodation for traveling monks & pilgrims.
Wéituótiān 韋馱天, temple guardian, protecting the monestary at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
Usually placed in the Heavenly Kings Hall (the entrance gate), facing into the monestary, thus
typically facing north. Also commonly placed in back-to-back structures with Bùdài 布袋
(Skt. = Maitreya). Bùdài however faces out the entrance (south) to protect those who enter the
temple. Notice how Wéituótiān holds his vajra-mallet. When the weapon points straight down to
the ground, it means the temple does not provide accommodation for traveling monks & pilgrims.
Wéituótiān 韋馱天, temple guardian. Notice how Wéituótiān
holds his weapon. When the weapon is balanced on his wrists
& his palms are joined together in prayer, it means the temple
provides accommodation for traveling monks & pilgrims.
Photos from this J-site and this J-site.
Wéituótiān 韋馱天, temple guardian. Notice how Wéituótiān
holds his weapon. When the weapon is balanced on his wrists
& his palms are joined together in prayer, it means the temple
provides accommodation for traveling monks & pilgrims.
Photos from this J-site and this J-site.
Bùdài 布袋 (J = Hotei, K = Podae 포대) protecting the entrance gate at  Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
At many Chinese temples, Bùdài is installed inside the Heavenly Kings Hall (the entrance gate).
He faces outward (south) to protect those who enter the temple. Bùdài is the pot-bellied
manifestation of the Future Buddha (Skt = Maitreya, C = Mílè 彌勒). He was an itinerant 10th-
century Buddhist monk. In art, he carries a large cloth bag 布袋, one that never empties, for he
uses it to feed the poor & needy. In Japan, he is one of the Seven Lucky Gods.
Bùdài 布袋 (J = Hotei, K = Podae 포대) protecting the entrance gate at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
At many Chinese temples, Bùdài is installed inside the Heavenly Kings Hall (the entrance gate).
He faces outward (south) to protect those who enter the temple. Bùdài is the pot-bellied
manifestation of the Future Buddha (Skt = Maitreya, C = Mílè 彌勒). He was an itinerant 10th-
century Buddhist monk. In art, he carries a large cloth bag 布袋, one that never empties, for he
uses it to feed the poor & needy. In Japan, he is one of the Seven Lucky Gods.
Bùdài 布袋 (J = Hotei, K = Podae 포대) protecting the entrance gate at Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺.
At many Chinese temples, he is installed inside the Heavenly Kings Hall (the entrance gate).
He faces outward (south) to protect those who enter the temple. The same hall commonly
includes another deity named Wéituótiān, who faces north into the monestary to protect its
practitioners. In the West, Bùdài is known as the Fat Buddha, Laughing Buddha.
Bùdài 布袋 (J = Hotei, K = Podae 포대) protecting the entrance gate at Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺.
At many Chinese temples, he is installed inside the Heavenly Kings Hall (the entrance gate).
He faces outward (south) to protect those who enter the temple. The same hall commonly
includes another deity named Wéituótiān, who faces north into the monestary to protect its
practitioners. In the West, Bùdài is known as the Fat Buddha, Laughing Buddha.
Bùdài 布袋 as deity of the dining hall at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. In some temples, Bùdài serves both
as the temple guardian (installed inside the entrace gate) and as the lord of the dining hall. In the
West, Bùdài is known as the Fat Buddha or Laughing Buddha.
Bùdài 布袋 as deity of the dining hall at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. In some temples, Bùdài serves both
as the temple guardian (installed inside the entrace gate) and as the lord of the dining hall. In the
West, Bùdài is known as the Fat Buddha or Laughing Buddha.
Bùdài 布袋 at Zhìzhě Pagoda (Zhìzhě Ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). Behind him are the verses of the FIVE CONTEMPLATIONS, or Wǔguān Jié
五觀偈 (J= Gokan Ge, K = Ogwan Gye). They are recalled before meals to remind monks that the food they eat is donated by lay supporters.
1. Considering how much effort produced this food, we reflect on its origins. 一計功多少 量彼來處。
2. Mindful of the deficiencies of our own virtue and practice, we strive to be worthy of this offering. 二忖己德行 全缺應供。
3. We take restraining the mind and avoiding faults such as greed as the essential principle. 三防心離過 貪等爲宗
4. We use this food properly as good medicine, to keep our bodies from withering away. 四正事良藥 爲療形枯
5. For the sake of attaining the way, we now receive this food 五爲成道業故 應受此食 
Source: Digital Dictionary of Buddhism. Sign in with user name = guest. Also see 小叢林淸規 T 2579.81.704a09, Shōsōrin Ryaku Shingi.
Bùdài 布袋 at Zhìzhě Pagoda (Zhìzhě Ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). Behind him are the verses of the FIVE CONTEMPLATIONS, or Wǔguān Jié
五觀偈 (J= Gokan Ge, K = Ogwan Gye). They are recalled before meals to remind monks that the food they eat is donated by lay supporters.
1. Considering how much effort produced this food, we reflect on its origins. 一計功多少 量彼來處。
2. Mindful of the deficiencies of our own virtue and practice, we strive to be worthy of this offering. 二忖己德行 全缺應供。
3. We take restraining the mind and avoiding faults such as greed as the essential principle. 三防心離過 貪等爲宗
4. We use this food properly as good medicine, to keep our bodies from withering away. 四正事良藥 爲療形枯
5. For the sake of attaining the way, we now receive this food 五爲成道業故 應受此食
Source: Digital Dictionary of Buddhism. Sign in with user name = guest. Also see 小叢林淸規 T 2579.81.704a09, Shōsōrin Ryaku Shingi.
Jìgōng 濟公 at the Tiantái Buddhism Museum 天台山仏教城 and at the Jìgōng Gùjū 濟公故居 (Jìgōng Former Residence). 
Jìgōng was an eccentric, booze-guzzling 13th-century itinerant monk with magical powers. He wandered aroundthe Tiantái area doing good deeds. He became a popular folk god and is often shown drinking wine from a gourd.
Jìgōng 濟公 at the Tiantái Buddhism Museum 天台山仏教城 and at the Jìgōng Gùjū 濟公故居 (Jìgōng Former Residence).
Jìgōng was an eccentric, booze-guzzling 13th-century itinerant monk with magical powers. He wandered around
the Tiantái area doing good deeds. He became a popular folk god and is often shown drinking wine from a gourd.
Jìgōng 濟公 statues on sale at the Jìgōng Former Residence 濟公故居(Jìgōng gùjū 濟公故居), located just a few minutes from our hotel.
Jìgōng 濟公 statues on sale at the Jìgōng Former Residence 濟公故居
(Jìgōng gùjū 濟公故居), located just a few minutes from our hotel.
Jìgōng 濟公, 1000-Armed Guānyīn 観音菩薩(Goddess of Mercy) & Bùdài 布袋 (Fat Buddha).Statues located at store near our hotel.
Jìgōng 濟公, 1000-Armed Guānyīn 観音菩薩
(Goddess of Mercy) & Bùdài 布袋 (Fat Buddha).
Statues located at store near our hotel.
Dragon. Decorative dragon gate outside Wòlóng Shānzhuāng Hotel 卧龍山莊. Link to our hotel.
Dragon. Decorative dragon gate outside Wòlóng Shānzhuāng Hotel 卧龍山莊. Link to our hotel.
Dragon. Wooden dragon for striking the temple bell. Found at Zhìzhě Pagoda (Zhìzhě Ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). Dragon. Protective dragon motif on temple architecture. Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. Lion. Stone lion protector outside Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. Lion warding off orange demon. Located near scenic Shíliáng Waterfall (Shíliáng Fēipù 石梁飛瀑). Lion. Protective lion door knockers are found commonly in China. Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺.
Lion. Motifs on armor of Ha/Heng & Four Heavenly Kings, Guóqing Temple 国清寺.Photos of these deities can be found earlier in this presentation.
Lion. Motifs on armor of Ha/Heng & Four Heavenly Kings, Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Photos of these deities can be found earlier in this presentation.
Lion. Altars with guardian lions.
Lion. Ceramic statue at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. The lion serves as mount of Wén Shū
Bodhisattva 文殊菩薩 (Skt. = Mañjuśrī). It symbolizes the voice of Buddhist Law and the
power of Buddhism (meditation) to tame the mind.
Lion. Ceramic statue at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. The lion serves as mount of Wén Shū
Bodhisattva 文殊菩薩 (Skt. = Mañjuśrī). It symbolizes the voice of Buddhist Law and the
power of Buddhism (meditation) to tame the mind.
Avalokitêśvara. 1000-Handed version of the Goddess of Mercy.C = Qiānshǒu Guānyīn 千手觀音, J = Senju Kannon, K = Cheonsu Gwaneum 천수관음.Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀 sits atop her crown. Head of Jìgōng 濟公 appears near bottom. Statues at store near our hotel.
Avalokitêśvara. 1000-Handed version of the Goddess of Mercy.
C = Qiānshǒu Guānyīn 千手觀音, J = Senju Kannon, K = Cheonsu Gwaneum 천수관음.
Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀 sits atop her crown. Head of Jìgōng 濟公 appears near bottom. Statues at store near our hotel.
Avalokitêśvara. Eleven-faced version, especially connected with tantric Buddhism.At Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. C =  Shíyīmiàn Guānyīn 十一面觀音, J =  Jūichimen Kannon,
K = Sibil Myeon Gwaneum 십일면관음. Ten of the heads symbolize the ten stages on the wayto enlightenment. At the top is the head of Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀. Avalokitêśvara is aprincipal attendant to Āmítuó. The wall-hanging scroll depicts Āmítuó as well.
Avalokitêśvara. Eleven-faced version, especially connected with tantric Buddhism.
At Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. C = Shíyīmiàn Guānyīn 十一面觀音, J = Jūichimen Kannon,
K = Sibil Myeon Gwaneum 십일면관음. Ten of the heads symbolize the ten stages on the way
to enlightenment. At the top is the head of Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀. Avalokitêśvara is a
principal attendant to Āmítuó. The wall-hanging scroll depicts Āmítuó as well.
Avalokitêśvara (Guānyīn 観音) and two attendants, Guóqing Temple 国清寺.The mural behind Guānyīn depicts her paradise Pǔtuó Shān 普陀山, located in Zhejiang.Two attendants are Sudhana-śreṣṭhi-dāraka (C = Shàncái Tóngzǐ善財童子) & the Dragon Princess Nāgakanyā (C = Lóngnǚ 龍女).
Avalokitêśvara (Guānyīn 観音) and two attendants, Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
The mural behind Guānyīn depicts her paradise Pǔtuó Shān 普陀山, located in Zhejiang.
Two attendants are Sudhana-śreṣṭhi-dāraka (C = Shàncái Tóngzǐ善財童子) & the Dragon Princess Nāgakanyā (C = Lóngnǚ 龍女).
Avalokitêśvara (Guānyīn 観音) and two attendants, Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.The mural behind Guānyīn depicts her paradise Pǔtuó Shān 普陀山, located in Zhejiang.Two attendants are Sudhana-śreṣṭhi-dāraka (C = Shàncái Tóngzǐ善財童子) & Dragon Princess Nāgakanyā (C = Lóngnǚ 龍女).
Avalokitêśvara (Guānyīn 観音) and two attendants, Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
The mural behind Guānyīn depicts her paradise Pǔtuó Shān 普陀山, located in Zhejiang.
Two attendants are Sudhana-śreṣṭhi-dāraka (C = Shàncái Tóngzǐ善財童子) & Dragon Princess Nāgakanyā (C = Lóngnǚ 龍女).
Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva on lion, Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
C = Wén Shū Púsà 文殊菩薩, J = Monju, K = Munsu 문수.
The wisest of the Bodhisattva. His cult is very popular in
China. Often shown atop a ferocious lion, symbolizing
the taming of the wild mind through meditation.
Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva on lion, Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
C = Wén Shū Púsà 文殊菩薩, J = Monju, K = Munsu 문수.
The wisest of the Bodhisattva. His cult is very popular in
China. Often shown atop a ferocious lion, symbolizing
the taming of the wild mind through meditation.
Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva atop lion, Guóqing Temple 国清寺. C = Wén Shū 文殊, J = Monju, K = Munsu 문수.
The wisest of the Bodhisattva, this deity appropriately symbolizes WISDOM. In art, he is oftenshown atop a ferocious lion, symbolizing the taming of the mind through meditation.
Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva atop lion, Guóqing Temple 国清寺. C = Wén Shū 文殊, J = Monju, K = Munsu 문수.
The wisest of the Bodhisattva, this deity appropriately symbolizes WISDOM. In art, he is often
shown atop a ferocious lion, symbolizing the taming of the mind through meditation.
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva atop elephant, Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺.
C = Pǔxián Púsà 普賢菩薩, J = Fugen, K =  Bohyeon Bosal 보현보살.
Represents PRAXIS (diligent practice of Buddhist tenets). The elephant
symbolizes the power of Buddhism to overcome all obstacles. In artwork,
Pǔxián Púsà often appears together with Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva, who represents WISDOM and rides a lion.
Samantabhadra Bodhisattva atop elephant, Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺.
C = Pǔxián Púsà 普賢菩薩, J = Fugen, K = Bohyeon Bosal 보현보살.
Represents PRAXIS (diligent practice of Buddhist tenets). The elephant
symbolizes the power of Buddhism to overcome all obstacles. In artwork,
Pǔxián Púsà often appears together with Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva, who represents WISDOM and rides a lion.
Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva with six-ring staff & wish-granting jewel. At Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
C = Dìzàng 地藏, J = Jizō, K = Jijang 지장. Dìzàng vowed to ease the suffering & shorten thesentence of those serving time in hell. His six-ring staff represents the sixth realms ofkarmic rebirth and Kṣitigarbha's vow to help those in all six realms. The jewel(Skt = Cintamani) signifies Kṣitigarbha's bestowal of blessings on all who suffer.
Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva with six-ring staff & wish-granting jewel. At Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
C = Dìzàng 地藏, J = Jizō, K = Jijang 지장. Dìzàng vowed to ease the suffering & shorten the
sentence of those serving time in hell. His six-ring staff represents the sixth realms of
karmic rebirth and Kṣitigarbha's vow to help those in all six realms. The jewel
(Skt = Cintamani) signifies Kṣitigarbha's bestowal of blessings on all who suffer.
Bodhisattva, Huádǐng Temple. C = Púsà 菩薩, J = Bosatsu, K = Bosal 보살.
Notice the symmetry of the hand gestures. The two are problably Guānyīn觀音 (Skt. = Avalokitêśvara) and Shìzhì 勢至 (Skt. = Mahāsthāmaprāpta), two of the main attendants to Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀如來 (Skt. = Amitâbha Tathāgata).
Bodhisattva, Huádǐng Temple. C = Púsà 菩薩, J = Bosatsu, K = Bosal 보살.
Notice the symmetry of the hand gestures. The two are problably Guānyīn
觀音 (Skt. = Avalokitêśvara) and Shìzhì 勢至 (Skt. = Mahāsthāmaprāpta),
two of the main attendants to Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀如來 (Skt. = Amitâbha Tathāgata).
Buddha (C =  Fó 佛) or mabyea Luóhàn 羅漢. From stone stupanear Shíliáng Fēipù Waterfall石梁飛瀑.
Buddha (C = Fó 佛) or mabye
a Luóhàn 羅漢. From stone stupa
near Shíliáng Fēipù Waterfall
石梁飛瀑.
Buddha Triad (Sānzūn 三尊) in the Hall to Five Hundred Luóhàn 五百羅漢 at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Śākya-Tathāgata 釋迦如來 at center flanked by Mañjuśrī 文殊 and Samantabhadra 普賢.
Buddha Triad (Sānzūn 三尊) in the Hall to Five Hundred Luóhàn 五百羅漢 at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Śākya-Tathāgata 釋迦如來 at center flanked by Mañjuśrī 文殊 and Samantabhadra 普賢.
Buddha. Seven Past Buddha (Qīfó 七佛) appear in halo (see prior photo).Guóqing Temple 国清寺. The crown depicts the Five Tathāgata (Wǔ Rúlái 五如來).
Buddha. Seven Past Buddha (Qīfó 七佛) appear in halo (see prior photo).
Guóqing Temple 国清寺. The crown depicts the Five Tathāgata (Wǔ Rúlái 五如來).
Buddha at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. The crown of this Buddha depicts the Five Tathāgata (Wǔ Rúlái 五如來).The halo depicts the Seven Past Buddha (Qīfó 七佛). The attendant is one of Buddha's two chief disciples.
Buddha at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺. The crown of this Buddha depicts the Five Tathāgata (Wǔ Rúlái 五如來).
The halo depicts the Seven Past Buddha (Qīfó 七佛). The attendant is one of Buddha's two chief disciples.
Buddha (Historical Buddha) flanked by Ēnán 阿難 (Skt = Ānanda) and Dà Jiāshě 大迦葉(Skt = Mahākāśyapa), his two chief disciples. Located at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
Buddha (Historical Buddha) flanked by Ēnán 阿難 (Skt = Ānanda) and Dà Jiāshě 大迦葉
(Skt = Mahākāśyapa), his two chief disciples. Located at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
Buddha (Historical Buddha) flanked by Ēnán 阿難 (Skt = Ānanda) and Dà Jiāshě 大迦葉(Skt = Mahākāśyapa), his two chief disciples. Located at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Buddha (Historical Buddha) flanked by Ēnán 阿難 (Skt = Ānanda) and Dà Jiāshě 大迦葉
(Skt = Mahākāśyapa), his two chief disciples. Located at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Buddha Triad (Sānzūn 三尊) at Gāo Míng Temple 高明講寺.
Historical Buddha 釋迦 at center flanked by Mañjuśrī 文殊 and Samantabhadra 普賢.
Buddha Triad (Sānzūn 三尊) at Gāo Míng Temple 高明講寺.
Historical Buddha 釋迦 at center flanked by Mañjuśrī 文殊 and Samantabhadra 普賢.
Buddha. Great Buddha Statue at the Tiantái Buddhism Museum 天台山仏教城,
about 15 meters in height, located just a few minutes from our hotel.
Buddha. Great Buddha Statue at the Tiantái Buddhism Museum 天台山仏教城,
about 15 meters in height, located just a few minutes from our hotel.
Zhào Gōng Míng 趙公明, a local folk deity, located near the Zhìzhě Pagoda
(Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). God of Money, God of Health. In art, depicted
with official's cap, iron club, black face, and riding a tiger. Able to control thunder,
lightning, clouds and rain. His key functions are to dispel pestilence, to ward off
natural disasters, and to rectify unjust verdicts. Red-faced deity is unidentified.
Zhào Gōng Míng 趙公明, a local folk deity, located near the Zhìzhě Pagoda
(Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). God of Money, God of Health. In art, depicted
with official's cap, iron club, black face, and riding a tiger. Able to control thunder,
lightning, clouds and rain. His key functions are to dispel pestilence, to ward off
natural disasters, and to rectify unjust verdicts. Red-faced deity is unidentified.
Zhào Gōng Míng 趙公明, a local folk deity, located near the Zhìzhě Pagoda
(Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). God of Money, God of Health. In art, depicted
with official's cap, iron club, black face, and riding a tiger. Able to control thunder,
lightning, clouds and rain. His key functions are to dispel pestilence, to ward off
natural disasters, and to rectify unjust verdicts. Red-faced deity is unidentified.
Zhào Gōng Míng 趙公明, a local folk deity, located near the Zhìzhě Pagoda
(Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔). God of Money, God of Health. In art, depicted
with official's cap, iron club, black face, and riding a tiger. Able to control thunder,
lightning, clouds and rain. His key functions are to dispel pestilence, to ward off
natural disasters, and to rectify unjust verdicts. Red-faced deity is unidentified.
Qiélán Shén 伽藍神, temple guardian.
J = Garanjin, K =  Garam sin 가람신.
Located at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.PENDING. Unsure about this identification.
Qiélán Shén 伽藍神, temple guardian.
J = Garanjin, K = Garam sin 가람신.
Located at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
PENDING. Unsure about this identification.
Local Gods. Located inside Guóqing Temple's 国清寺 Patriarch Hall. The three miniaturefemale ceramic statues are Avalokitêśvara (Guānyīn 観音). The statue of the deity withelongated head holding a dragon staff and peach is probably the god of longevity.TheChinese character for LONGEVITY (Shòu 寿) is written on his robe. He is therefore mostlikely Fú Lù Shòu 福禄寿, a popular deity of wealth 福, happiness 禄, and longevity 寿.
Other names for Fú Lù Shòu are Shòu Xīng 寿星 or Shòu Lǎo 寿老.
Local Gods. Located inside Guóqing Temple's 国清寺 Patriarch Hall. The three miniature
female ceramic statues are Avalokitêśvara (Guānyīn 観音). The statue of the deity with
elongated head holding a dragon staff and peach is probably the god of longevity.The
Chinese character for LONGEVITY (Shòu 寿) is written on his robe. He is therefore most
likely Fú Lù Shòu 福禄寿, a popular deity of wealth 福, happiness 禄, and longevity 寿.
Other names for Fú Lù Shòu are Shòu Xīng 寿星 or Shòu Lǎo 寿老.
Shuǐlù Fǎhuì 水陸法會 (J = Suiriku Hōe, K = Suryuk Hoe 수륙회). Also written Shuǐlù Zhāi
水陸齋. The Buddhist Rite for Deliverance of Creatures of Water and Land; aka Festival of
Water & Land, Hungry Ghosts Festival. Guóqing Temple 国清寺 & Gāo Míng Temple 高明講寺.
Paper horses, boats, and money to help transport lost souls.
Shuǐlù Fǎhuì 水陸法會 (J = Suiriku Hōe, K = Suryuk Hoe 수륙회). Also written Shuǐlù Zhāi
水陸齋. The Buddhist Rite for Deliverance of Creatures of Water and Land; aka Festival of
Water & Land, Hungry Ghosts Festival. Guóqing Temple 国清寺 & Gāo Míng Temple 高明講寺.
Paper horses, boats, and money to help transport lost souls.
Shuǐlù Fǎhuì 水陸法會 (J = Suiriku Hōe, K = Suryuk Hoe 수륙회). Also written Shuǐlù Zhāi 水陸齋. The Buddhist Rite forDeliverance of Creatures of Water and Land; aka the Festival of Water and Land, the Hungry Ghosts Festival.Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Shuǐlù Fǎhuì 水陸法會 (J = Suiriku Hōe, K = Suryuk Hoe 수륙회). Also written Shuǐlù Zhāi 水陸齋. The Buddhist Rite for
Deliverance of Creatures of Water and Land; aka the Festival of Water and Land, the Hungry Ghosts Festival.
Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Shuǐlù Fǎhuì 水陸法會 (J = Suiriku Hōe, K = Suryuk Hoe 수륙회). Women burning paper money.Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Shuǐlù Fǎhuì 水陸法會 (J = Suiriku Hōe, K = Suryuk Hoe 수륙회). Women burning paper money.
Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Scrolls of deities invoked in the ceremony. Photo by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall. Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Paintings of the Luóhàn 羅漢.Photos by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall. Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Paintings of the Luóhàn 羅漢.
Photos by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.Paintings of protective devas. Photo by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Paintings of protective devas. Photo by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Closeup of paintings of protective devas. Photos by Guttorm. Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺. Paintings of two Buddha. Photos by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.Painting of various magical animals. Photo by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing Temple 国清寺.
Painting of various magical animals. Photo by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing
Temple 国清寺. Painting of memorial
tablets. Photo by Guttorm.
Nèitáng 內堂, or inner hall, at Guóqing
Temple 国清寺. Painting of memorial
tablets. Photo by Guttorm.
 Necklace, Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
Wordplay. Here we see the Chinese term Fó 佛, meaning BUDDHA,alongside four images of the bat. The Chinese word for bat (C = Fú 蝠)sounds identical to the Chinese word for good fortune (C = Fú 福).But they are different characters. It is a play on words.
Wordplay. Here we see the Chinese term Fó 佛, meaning BUDDHA,
alongside four images of the bat. The Chinese word for bat (C = Fú 蝠)
sounds identical to the Chinese word for good fortune (C = Fú 福).
But they are different characters. It is a play on words.
Wordplay. The Chinese word for Good Fortune
(C = Fú 福) is often shown upside down and
translated as GOOD LUCK ARRIVES. The
translation involves wordplay. In Chinese,
upside down (dào 倒) and to arrive (dào 到)
sound the same but are are written differently.
Wordplay. The Chinese word for Good Fortune
(C = Fú 福) is often shown upside down and
translated as GOOD LUCK ARRIVES. The
translation involves wordplay. In Chinese,
upside down (dào 倒) and to arrive (dào 到)
sound the same but are are written differently.
No Drugs. Plackard in my hotelin Sanmenxian 三门县.Opium plant alongside cigarette.
No Drugs. Plackard in my hotel
in Sanmenxian 三门县.
Opium plant alongside cigarette.
Pilgrimage Stamps, Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. When one visits temples along amulti-site circuit, one can collect stamps (for a small fee) at each site visited.
Pilgrimage Stamps, Guóqingsì Temple 国清寺. When one visits temples along a
multi-site circuit, one can collect stamps (for a small fee) at each site visited.
Ākāśagarbha Bodisattva scroll at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
C =  Xūkōng Zàng 虛空藏, J = Kokūzō, K = Heogong Jang 허공장.
Reproduction of Heian-era (794 to 1185) Japanese painting.
Ākāśagarbha Bodisattva scroll at Huádǐng Temple 華頂講寺.
C = Xūkōng Zàng 虛空藏, J = Kokūzō, K = Heogong Jang 허공장.
Reproduction of Heian-era (794 to 1185) Japanese painting.
Bodhidharma, Father of Chan (Zen) Buddhism.
C = Dámó 達磨, J = Daruma, K = Dalma 달마.Located at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
Bodhidharma, Father of Chan (Zen) Buddhism.
C = Dámó 達磨, J = Daruma, K = Dalma 달마.
Located at Wànnián Temple 萬年禪寺.
Avalokitêśvara. 1000-Handed version of the Goddess of Mercy. Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀 sits atop her crown.
C = Qiānshǒu Guānyīn 千手觀音, J = Senju Kannon, K = Cheonsu Gwaneum 천수관음. Statue at store near our hotel.
Avalokitêśvara. 1000-Handed version of the Goddess of Mercy. Āmítuó Buddha 阿彌陀 sits atop her crown.
C = Qiānshǒu Guānyīn 千手觀音, J = Senju Kannon, K = Cheonsu Gwaneum 천수관음. Statue at store near our hotel.
Landscape. Views near the Zhìzhě Pagoda(Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔).
Landscape. Views near the Zhìzhě Pagoda
(Zhìzhě ròushēntǎ 智者肉身塔).